- impressive rock-hewn town in the Caucasus -

The great rock-hewn town Uplistsikhe is a very imposing historic site of Georgia. It is situated seventy kilometers west of Tbilisi, on the left bank of the River Mtkvari.

Uplistsikhe - overview
Uplistsikhe - overview
rock structures of the town Uplistsikhe

According to the archaeologists, the origins of this site date back to the late Bronze Age, to the 2nd millennium BC. It is one of the earliest towns of Georgia, but it is the architecture which makes it so awesome. Due to its age there arises the question whether there is any reference of a town in the ancient Nart sagas. This extraordinarily rich folk literature of the Caucasus is very old and deeply rooted in the tradition of the indigenous peoples of the Caucasus. The myths and legends reflect a society where women have an important, perhaps even a predominating role.
Actually, there is a town mentioned in the Nart sagas. In this town there lives one of the most prominent Nart characters, the wise and enticing woman Satanaya - the Great Mother of all Narts. The name of this town is Ghund-Ghund.

In the fourth saga titled 'Satanaya and Argwana' following story is told:
»In the time of the Narts there stood a city called Ghund-Ghund. Its streets were narrow and twisted. A man could easily become lost and never find his way out! Therein lived a woman named Satanaya whose beauty was unsurpassed. In the city there was also a great treasure, a magical three-legged table…«

This town Ghund-Ghund is described as a labyrinth. Actually, Uplisziche also creates the impression that it is a labyrinth considering the winding alleys and paths which weaves through the many rock-cut structures.
The magical three-legged table reminds at the famous tripod from Delphi in Greece on which the oracle priestess Pythia delivered oracles in a frenzied state.
Concerning the archaeological evidence, it is believed that Uplisziche had been an important religious center before Christianization.

rock-hewn road - the ascent to the town
rock-hewn road - the ascent to the town
rock building
rock building
basement of rock rooms
basement of rock rooms
rock engravings
>>> close-up <<<
rock engravings
rock engravings and petroglyths
view to the river Mtkwari
view from the rock-hewn town Uplistsikhe to the river Mtkwari with a peephole in direction to the river

The main elements of the architecture in Uplisziche are: rock-cut rooms, narrow rock cut paths and alleys, deep niches, rock-hewn cisterns, rock-hewn courtyards with rock-hewn benches follow the perimeter of the courtyard. Many of these features you will rediscover at the rock-hewn monuments in the Thermodon area of northern Turkey, so at Tekkeköy and Karpu Kale, as well as on the Greek island Lemnos at Myrina.

B o o k s
Gerhard Pöllauer: The Lost History of the Amazons
Recent research findings on the legendary women nation
ISBN: 978-1-4461-9305-1; Paperback, 148 pages, 87 black-and-white pictures, 3 illustrations
Price: $17.48

This book focuses on the numerous traces of the Amazons. It reports on latest findings and investigation in the legendary homeland of the Amazons at the river Thermodon and on the Amazon island Lemnos.
Fresh evidence indicates that the Amazons really existed! According to these new discoveries the lost history of the Amazons can be reconstructed.

Gerhard Pöllauer, Geheimnisvolles Lemnos. Die von Frauen beherrschte Insel
(Mysterious Lemnos. Island dominated by women)
ISBN: 978-3-902096-77-7; Paperback, 128 pages, 97 black-and-white pictures, 3 color photos, 1 map
Price: EUR 13.00

The rather unknown North Aegean island Lemnos amazes with its great prehistoric past. About 5000 years ago there existed a highly-developed civilization which created imposing cities, mighty rock buildings and impressive sanctuaries on this Greek island. The discovery of Poliochni was sensational. Because of its largeness and refinement this Bronze Age settlement is regarded as the most ancient city of Europe. Also the discoveries at Myrina in the west and Hephaistia in the north witness the island's prehistoric importance. Presumably there was a further city in the Northeast - Chryse, which was sunken under the sea.
Moreover, the findings make evident that in this ancient civilization there was gender equality, it even seems that the women had the predominating gender role. Not without reason in antiquity Lemnos was described with the words »island dominated by women«.
=> Table of contents
At present, this book is only available in German.

Updated: July 12, 2024
Diese Seite gibt es auch auf deutsch.

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